Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Junkers Ju 87 Stuka

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Made famous by its part in the Blitzkrieg that led to early German victories in 1939 and 1940, the Junkers Ju 87 was designed as airborne artillery for the army. Even during its early successes in the war, the Stuka was highly vulnerable to enemy fighters. By mid-1943, modern Allied fighters like the Spitfire V, VIII, and IX made the Ju 87’s mission hazardous without air superiority.  

Stukas — short for the German translation of dive bomber — adorned with black crosses were a common sight above Malta and in the Western Desert in 1941-1942. The Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) also flew various models of the Ju 87 during these campaigns. During its defence of Sicily, at least one Italian dive bomber unit flew the aircraft. These obsolete warplanes were part of the Axis force tasked with the impossible mission of stopping the Allied invasion.


Specifications (Junkers Ju 87D-1)

Type: two-seat dive-bomber and close support warplane

Powerplant: one 1044kW (1400hp) Junkers Jumo 211J-1 12-cylinder inverted-Vee engine

Performance: maximum speed 410km/h (255mph); climb to 5000m (16,405ft) in 19 minutes 48 seconds; service ceiling 7300mm (23950ft); range 1535km (954 miles)  

Weights: empty 3900kg (8598lb); maximum take-off 6600kg (14,550lb)

Wingspan: 13.8m (45ft 3in)

Length: 11.50m (37ft 9in)

Height: 3.88m (12ft 9in)

Armament: two 7.92mm (0.31in) fixed forward-firing machine guns in the leading edges of the wing and one 7.92mm (0.31in) trainable two-barrel rearward-firing machine gun in the rear of the cockpit, plus an external bomb load of 1800kg (3968lb)


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The following Regia Aeronautica units flew the Junkers Ju 87 during Operation HUSKY:

  • 121 Gruppo Tuffatori
    • 237 Squadriglia
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Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Douglas C-47 Skytrain / Dakota

As the lead C-47 transport began to unload its charges, red anti-aircraft tracer fire lit up the night sky. By the time the firing stopped nearly two dozen aircraft had been shot down with an estimated 410 paratrooper casualties.

– Excerpt from Eagles over Husky

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C-47 Skytrain, Sicily by Roy Cross

General Dwight Eisenhower, who was commander-in-chief for the Sicily operation and later went on to command all Allied forces in Europe, called the C-47 one of his tools of victory. The Americans designated the C-47 as the Skytrain, while the British referred to it as the Dakota. These aircraft played crucial roles in troop transport, equipment and supply airlift, and casualty evacuation.

The airborne insertions tied to Operation Husky were undoubtedly the worst failures of Allied inter-service cooperation in Sicily. Poor weather, routing, inexperience among aircrews, and itchy trigger fingers among anti-aircraft gunners caused the loss of dozens of aircraft and hundreds of airborne troops. It probably wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that friendly fire cost the Allies more transport aircraft during Operation Husky than the enemy did.

The airborne troops who did survive their drops or glider tugs from C-47s and other transport aircraft made a difference on the ground. Just like on D-Day a year later, the airborne troops confused the German and Italian defenders. They also helped to hold up crucial Axis counter attacks, especially in the sector of American landings near Gela. In the British sector, airborne troops helped capture intact a pair of bridges that facilitated Montgomery’s advance towards Catania.


Specifications (C-47)

Type: two/three-seat transport with accommodation for 28 troops, or 14 litters plus three attendants or 10,000lb (4536kg) of freight

Powerplant: two 895kW (1200hp) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 14-cylinder two-row radial engines

Performance: maximum speed 370km/h (230mph); climb to 3050m (10,000ft) in 9 minutes 36 seconds; service ceiling 7315m (24,000ft); range 2575km (1600 miles)

Weights: empty 8103kg (17,865lb); maximum take-off 14,061kg (31,000lb)

Wingspan: 28.90m (95ft)

Length: 19.63m (64ft 5.5in)

Height: 5.20m (16ft 11in)

Armament: none


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The following Northwest African Troop Carrier Command units flew the Douglas C-47 Skytrain in the invasion of Sicily:

US 51st Troop Carrier Wing

  • 60th Troop Carrier Group
    • 10th Squadron
    • 11th Squadron
    • 12th Squadron
    • 28th Squadron
  • 62nd Troop Carrier Group
    • 4th Squadron
    • 7th Squadron
    • 8th Squadron
    • 51st Squadron
  • 64th Troop Carrier Group
    • 16th Squadron
    • 17th Squadron
    • 18th Squadron
    • 35th Squadron
  • 316th Troop Carrier Group
    • 36th Squadron
    • 44th Squadron
    • 45th Squadron

US 52nd Troop Carrier Wing

  • 61st Troop Carrier Group
    • 14th Squadron
    • 15th Squadron
    • 53rd Squadron
    • 59th Squadron
  • 313th Troop Carrier Group
    • 29th Squadron
    • 47th Squadron
    • 48th Squadron
    • 49th Squadron
  • 314th Troop Carrier Group
    • 32nd Squadron
    • 50th Squadron
    • 61st Squadron
    • 62nd Squadron
Book News

YouTuber Features ‘Eagles over Husky’

Eagles over Husky is on YouTube! 

The Military Aviation History channel features the book in its latest video. It’s a great script, including accounts from Johannes Steinhoff, a Luftwaffe ace who experienced the Allied onslaught first-hand. For Steinhoff, Operation Husky was the moment he realized that the tide had turned, and Nazi Germany was on an inevitable road to defeat.

Check the video out below!

Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Messerschmitt Bf 110

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The Messerschmitt Bf 110 heavy fighter (Zerstörer — “Destroyer” in German) was a pre-war design that went through many upgrades during the Second World War. The aircraft was one of the few long-range fighters the Luftwaffe possessed but, while heavily armed, could not compete with smaller and more nimble Allied planes. Its heavy armament and the extra space its airframe afforded made it a good candidate as a night fighter, fighter-bomber, and long-range reconnaissance aircraft.


Specifications (Bf 110F-2)

Type: two-seat heavy fighter

Powerplant: two 1007kW (1350hp) Daimler-Benz DB 601F 12-cylinder inverted-Vee engines

Performance: maximum speed 565km/h (351mph); climb to 6000m (19,685ft) in 9 minutes 12 seconds; service ceiling 10,900m (35,760ft); range 1200km (746 miles)

Weights: empty 5600kg (12,346lb); maximum take-off 7200kg (15,873lb)

Wingspan: 16.20m (53ft 2in)

Length: 12.10m (38ft 8in)

Height: 4.13m (13ft 7in) with the tail up

Armament: two 20mm (0.79in) forward-firing cannon and four 7.92mm (0.31in) fixed forward-firing machine guns in the nose and one 7.92mm (0.31in) trainable rearward-firing machine gun in the rear cockpit


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The following Luftflotte 2 units flew Messerschmitt Bf 110s in defence of Sicily:

Night Fighters (Bf 110 or Ju 88)

  • Nachtjagdgeschwader (NJG) 2
    • II/NJG 2

Twin-Engine Fighters (Bf 110 & Me 210)

  • Zerstörergeschwader (ZG) 1
    • II/ZG 1
  • ZG 26
    • Gruppenstab ZG 26
    • III/ZG 26
    • X/ZG 26
Book News

Author’s Talk at the Billy Bishop Home and Museum

Hello, friends.

I’m very pleased to announce that I’ll be speaking about Eagles over Husky at one of my favourite places in the world: the childhood home of Canada’s greatest fighter pilot, Billy Bishop.

I worked at the Billy Bishop Home and Museum all the way back in the summer of 2010. It’s a wonderful museum and National Historic Site that tells the story of Canada’s ace of aces. It also features the stories of countless others from the Grey and Bruce counties who served in Canada’s many conflicts.

Join us in Owen Sound at 7pm on June 2nd, 2018. Details below:

BBHM

Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Supermarine Walrus

Beyond Courage (Book Cover, Grub St)
The rescue of W/C W. G. G. Duncan Smith DSO DFC by a Walrus of 284 Squadron, 2 September 1943, off the Italian coast, whilst being attacked by Me109s of JG 52 (Barry Weekly)

The Supermarine Walrus owes its existence to R.J. Mitchell, the same aeronautical engineer who designed the Spitfire in its early stages.

In the early days of the Second World War in the Mediterranean, the Royal Air Force’s air-sea rescue (ASR) capabilities were small. The air fighting above Malta was serviced by motor launches, while most of the air fighting in the Western Desert occurred over land. That all changed with Operation Torch and Operation Husky.

In February 1943, No. 283 Squadron became the first RAF ASR squadron in the western Mediterranean. In anticipation of the invasion of Sicily, No. 284 Squadron formed in the United Kingdom and transited to Malta just in time for the assault. Both units flew the Walrus. With Allied aircraft flying to targets in Sicily, Sardinia, and Italy from North Africa, Malta, and Pantelleria, these ASR crews would be busy during the campaign.

In fact, according to Beyond Courage, aviation historian Norman Franks’s book on Walrus squadrons in the Mediterranean, these squadrons made 36 rescues (of Allied and Axis aircrews) between the end of fighting in North African and the end of fighting in Sicily. It must have given Allied aircrews some confidence to know that if they went down over water there was a chance of rescue.


Specifications

Type: 3-4 seat amphibious reconnaissance aircraft

Powerplant: one 510kW (680hp) Bristol Pegasus VI radial engine

Performance: maximum speed 215km/h (135mph) at 1450m (4750ft); range 965km (600 miles); service ceiling 5650m (18,500ft); rate of climb 318 meters per minute (1050ft per minute)

Weights: empty 2220kg (4900lb); maximum take-off 3650kg (8050lb)

Wingspan: 14m (45ft 10in)

Length: 11.45m (36ft 7in)

Height: 4.6m (15ft 3in)

Armament: two or three 7.7mm (0.303in) Vickers K machine guns, plus 600lbs of wing-mounted equipment.


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The following Northwest African Coastal Air Force units used the Supermarine Walrus in the invasion of Sicily:

  • No. 283 Squadron RAF
  • No. 284 Squadron RAF

 

Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Reggiane Re.2002 Ram

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The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt had yet to deploy to the Mediterranean in mid-1943, but its Italian doppelganger had. First flown in October 1940, and introduced to combat squadrons in March 1942, the Re.2002’s Piaggio engine proved unreliable. Consequently, the Regia Aeronautica employed the Reggiane Re.2002 as a fighter-bomber during the defence of Sicily. Re.2002 attack squadrons suffered heavy losses to RAF Spitfires while attempting to attack Allied shipping off the invasion beaches, losing 14 in four days. They were also heavily bombed on their aerodromes in southern Italy.


Specifications (Re.2002)

Type: single-seat fighter-bomber

Powerplant: one 877kW (1,175hp) Piaggio P.XIX RC 45 Turbine radial engine

Performance: maximum speed 530km/h (329mph); range 1100km (680 miles); service ceiling 10,500m (34,450ft)

Weights: empty 2400kg (5280lb); maximum take-off 3240kg (7128lb)

Wingspan: 11m (36ft 1in)

Length: 8.16m (26ft 9in)

Height: 3.15m (10ft 4in)

Armament: Two 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns and two 7.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns with an external bomb load of 650kg (1430lb) on three hardpoints


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The following Regia Aeronautica units flew Re.2002s in defence of Sicily:

  • 101 Gruppo Tuffatori
  • 102 Gruppo Tuffatori