The event is the 14th Annual Windsor Military Studies Conference, being held from March 29th to 30th. The conference features Donald L. Miller, author of Masters of the Air and expert on the bombing of Germany during the Second World War. Also featured is Geoffrey Hayes, author of Crerar’s Lieutenants, the 2017 recipient of the C. P. Stacey Award. It’s shaping up to be a great weekend!
Join me in Windsor at 1:45pm on March 30, 2019. Books will be available for purchase ($40). Details below:
“[F]ighters were raising hell. On several occasions I would be safe in saying that every plane [B-17] was sending bullets at fighters – most vivid 4th of July I’ve ever seen, with tracers all over the sky, a formation of bombers, fighters darting in and out and black puffs all around. The fighters followed for 40 minutes, then it ended rather abruptly.”
The Luftwaffe inspector of fighters, General Adolf Galland, singled out American four-engine bombers for the defence of Sicily. These efforts were unsuccessful. Unlike the situation over the Reich in 1943, long-range fighter escorts were available to the Allies. P-38 Lightnings would fly with the bombers from bases in North Africa, while Spitfires based in Malta often escorted the bombers in the vicinity of Sicily.
The B-17 Flying Fortress was one of two heavy bombers serving with the Allied air forces during Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 (the other was the B-24 Liberator; the RAF had Halifaxes in theater, but they were used as transports). These aircraft focused their efforts on Axis aerodromes, lines of communication, and industry in Sicily, Sardinia, and mainland Italy. Nearly all B-17s in the Mediterranean were under the command of Major-General James H. Doolittle and the Northwest African Strategic Air Force.
The lone exceptions were the B-17s of the US 15th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron. These specialist crews were under the command of Colonel Elliott Roosevelt, one of the US president’s sons. As part of the Northwest African Photographic Reconnaissance Wing, these modified bombers (F-9s) had their bombarding equipment replaced by photographic equipment and flew with a reduced defensive armament. They flew crucial missions, gathering intelligence for future strikes, damage assessments, cartographers, and army and navy planners.
Type: 10-seat heavy bomber
Powerplant: four 895kW (1200hp) Wright R-1820-97 nine-cylinder single-row radial engines
Performance: maximum speed 523km/h (325mph); climb to 6095m (20,000ft) in 25 minutes 42 seconds; ceiling 11,430m (37,500ft); range 7113km (4420 miles)
Weights: empty 16,206kg (35,728lb); maximum take-off 32,659kg (72,000lb)
Wingspan: 31.63m (103ft 9in)
Length: 22.78m (74ft 9in)
Height: 5.85m (19ft 3in)
Armament: two 7.92mm (0.3in) trainable forward-firing machine guns in cheek positions, three 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable machine guns in dorsal positions, two 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable machine guns in the ventral position and one 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable lateral-firing machine gun in each of the two waist positions, plus an internal bomb load of 4761kg (10,496lb)
The following Northwest African Air Force units flew the Boeing B-17 during Operation Husky:
As the lead C-47 transport began to unload its charges, red anti-aircraft tracer fire lit up the night sky. By the time the firing stopped nearly two dozen aircraft had been shot down with an estimated 410 paratrooper casualties.
General Dwight Eisenhower, who was commander-in-chief for the Sicily operation and later went on to command all Allied forces in Europe, called the C-47 one of his tools of victory. The Americans designated the C-47 as the Skytrain, while the British referred to it as the Dakota. These aircraft played crucial roles in troop transport, equipment and supply airlift, and casualty evacuation.
The airborne insertions tied to Operation Husky were undoubtedly the worst failures of Allied inter-service cooperation in Sicily. Poor weather, routing, inexperience among aircrews, and itchy trigger fingers among anti-aircraft gunners caused the loss of dozens of aircraft and hundreds of airborne troops. It probably wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that friendly fire cost the Allies more transport aircraft during Operation Husky than the enemy did.
The airborne troops who did survive their drops or glider tugs from C-47s and other transport aircraft made a difference on the ground. Just like on D-Day a year later, the airborne troops confused the German and Italian defenders. They also helped to hold up crucial Axis counter attacks, especially in the sector of American landings near Gela. In the British sector, airborne troops helped capture intact a pair of bridges that facilitated Montgomery’s advance towards Catania.
Type: two/three-seat transport with accommodation for 28 troops, or 14 litters plus three attendants or 10,000lb (4536kg) of freight