Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Martin Baltimore

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The Martin Baltimore was an American design ordered by the French in May 1940, just as the Battle of France took shape. The French armistice with Nazi Germany forced the Glen L. Martin Company to look for another buyer. They found a willing customer in the Royal Air Force.

The RAF only used these aircraft operationally in North Africa and the Mediterranean. They were used as light attack bombers with the Desert Air Force, which later became part of the Northwest African Tactical Air Force for campaigns in Tunisia and Sicily. By this time, the Tactical Air Force included more advanced bombers like the Douglas Boston. Nevertheless, three squadrons (one of which was South African) continued to operate the Baltimore. These units were a common sight above the British 8th Army, attacking Axis lines of communication, artillery, and troop concentrations.

The Baltimore also served as a maritime reconnaissance, search and rescue, and anti-submarine aircraft. Two squadrons, one with the Northwest African Coastal Air Force and another with Air Headquarters Malta, served in maritime aviation roles during Operation Husky.


Specifications (Baltimore V)

Type: four-seat light bomber

Powerplant: two 1268kW (1700hp) Wright GR-2600-A5B geared radial engines

Performance: maximum speed 488km/h (305mph); range 1577km (980 miles)

Weights: empty 7253kg (15,991lb); loaded 10,900kg (23,185lb)

Wingspan: 18.7m (61ft 4in)

Length: 14.8m (48ft 6in)

Height: 4.32m (14ft 2in)

Armament: four wing-mounted 7.62mm (0.30in) fixed, forward-firing machine guns in the leading edges of the wing, two to four 7.7mm (0.303in) trainable rearward-firing machine guns in the dorsal turret, two 7.7mm (0.303in) machine guns in the ventral positions, plus an internal bomb load of 910kg (2000lb)  


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The following Mediterranean Air Command units flew the Martin Baltimore during Operation HUSKY:

Northwest African Coastal Air Force

  • No. 52 Squadron RAF

Northwest African Tactical Air Force

  • No. 21 Squadron SAAF
  • No. 55 Squadron RAF
  • No. 223 Squadron RAF

Air Headquarters Malta

  • No. 69 Squadron RAF
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Warplane Wednesday

Warplane Wednesday: Martin B-26 Marauder

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The Martin B-26 Marauder was introduced to the Mediterranean Theatre by No. 14 Squadron RAF in mid-1942. No. 14 Squadron used these aircraft in the long-range maritime reconnaissance, minelaying, and anti-shipping roles. In March 1943, as the end in North Africa neared, the squadron began using their aircraft in the anti-submarine role. They also had a role in the slaughter of German and Italian air transports desperately trying to resupply the Tunisian bridgehead.

The USAAF first deployed the B-26 in the Mediterranean during Operation Torch. For the campaign in North Africa, these medium bombers deployed in low-level attacks against heavily defended targets. Heavy losses forced their reorientation as a medium-level bomber.

For Operation Husky, the bulk of Martin B-26 Marauders served in the Strategic Air Force under Major General James Doolittle. These B-26s were part of the 2686th Medium Bombardment Wing (Provincial), established from 6 June to 3 September 1943. Flying missions from North Africa, these aircraft struck enemy aerodromes, war industry, and lines of communication in Sicily, Sardinia, and Italy.


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Specifications (B-26A)

Type: seven-seat medium bomber

Powerplant: two 1379kW (1850hp) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 18-cylinder two-row radial engines

Performance: maximum speed 507km/h (315mph) at 4570m (15,000ft); climb to 4570m (15,000ft) in 12 minutes 30 seconds; service ceiling 7620m (25,000ft); range 1609km (1000 miles)

Weights: empty 9696kg (21,375lb); maximum take-off 14,515kg (32,000lb)

Wingspan: 18.81m (65ft)

Length: 17.07m (56ft)

Height: 6.05m (19ft 10in)

Armament: one 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable forward-firing machine gun in the nose position, two 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable machine guns in the dorsal turret and one 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable rearward-firing machine gun in the tail position, plus an internal and external bomb load of 4800lb (2177kg)


The following Mediterranean Air Command units flew the Martin B-26 during Operation HUSKY:

Northwest African Coastal Air Force

  • No. 14 Squadron RAF

Northwest African Strategic Air Force

  • US 34th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 37th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 95th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 432nd Bombardment Squadron
  • US 437th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 438th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 439th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 440th Bombardment Squadron
  • US 441st Bombardment Squadron
  • US 442nd Bombardment Squadron
  • US 443rd Bombardment Squadron
  • US 444th Bombardment Squadron