I’m very pleased to announce that I’ll be speaking about and signing copies of Eagles over Huskyat one of the premier aviation museums in North America: Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Mount Hope, Ontario! Books will be available for purchase. Admission to the presentation is free.
I’m very pleased to announce that I’ll be speaking about and signing copies of Eagles over Huskyat one of my favourite places in the world: The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum in London, Ontario! Books will be available for purchase ($40). Admission to the museum is by donation and “tickets” will be “sold” on Eventbrite (there is limited seating).
I’ve included a list of the entire speaker series below. There are a lot of great historians involved and I’m told that the museum will be producing a podcast featuring the series for those who can’t make it to the events. You can also download a copy of the full brochure here.
Big news in Eagles over Husky land! The book is now available as an eBook.
This means great savings for you, my prospective reader. The best price I can give for hardback copies thanks to my author’s discount is $40. This is because the book is published in the United Kingdom and the North American distributor is across the border in the United States.
The eBook edition looks to be going for between $4 and $5. Start reading right now:
Please rate and review the book when you’ve finished!
Here’s what some happy readers have said:
The author draws upon experiences and sources from both sides to produce a fascinating narrative. [Eagles over Husky] is an all-round exceptional book.
– Andy Saunders, Britain at War magazine
The heat kept me indoors most of the weekend, so I read Eagles over Husky by Alexander Fitzgerald-Black non-stop. The book was a riveting, fascinating, and human history of the Allied Air Forces in the Sicilian campaign of World War Two. Full of interesting characters and stories. Highly recommend!
– Adam Montgomery, author of The Invisible Injured
The event is the 14th Annual Windsor Military Studies Conference, being held from March 29th to 30th. The conference features Donald L. Miller, author of Masters of the Air and expert on the bombing of Germany during the Second World War. Also featured is Geoffrey Hayes, author of Crerar’s Lieutenants, the 2017 recipient of the C. P. Stacey Award. It’s shaping up to be a great weekend!
Join me in Windsor at 1:45pm on March 30, 2019. Books will be available for purchase ($40). Details below:
It was a hot and dry summer afternoon in Sicily. Most of the locals had already gone home to take in their early afternoon siesta. It was 2013, and I was part of a Canadian-American battlefield study tour. That day we were exploring the beautiful mountaintop commune of Enna, where Canadian and American troops met during the Second World War clash that brought destruction to the island 70 years before. We visited the Castello di Lombardia, an ancient fortress that dominates the terrain north and east of Enna. From atop the castle’s ramparts, we had an impressive view of the battle sites that marked the middle point of the Sicilian campaign. We could see Leonforte and Assoro, famous Canadian battlegrounds, and into the American sector near Nicosia. As we started back towards the touring vans, one of the Canadian army officers with the group asked me, “So, Alex, where’s the air force in all of this?”
He knew that I was working on my master’s thesis, a history of the Allied air forces during the Battle of Sicily. At the time, I had completed my literature review but had yet to dive deeply into the primary sources I had so carefully photographed in a visit to England on my way to Sicily. I consulted documents at the National Archives at Kew, the Air Historical Branch at RAF Northolt, and at the University of East Anglia Archives in Norwich. But these documents remained unread files on my camera, laptop, and at least one external hard drive at the time. The best I could do was assure him that the air force was there, despite what some of the literature on the subject would have you believe.
In a nutshell, that’s why I wrote Eagles over Husky. Although the Allied air forces played a critical role in the success of Operation HUSKY – the invasion of Sicily in 1943 – much of the literature disparages or downplays their efforts. Most campaign histories, like Carlo D’Este’s Bitter Victory or Mitcham and von Stauffenberg’s The Battle of Sicily,focus primarily on the army’s fight. These authors occasionally fly airplanes through their narratives and see the air force’s contribution through the army and navy’s fault-finding perspectives. I wanted to write a detailed account of the battle from the air force’s perspective. What I found was an overlooked air war that was just as critical to strategic success in Sicily as the boots on the ground.
Why were the Allies in Sicily? There’s an interesting story behind that, and you’ll find it in my book. The short version is that the Allies had a large military force in the Mediterranean at the end of 1942. They thought they could best employ it by defeating the Italians and opening the Mediterranean to Allied shipping in 1943. Doing so would entice Nazi Germany to dispatch forces to defend its southern flank, including an already overstretched Luftwaffe. As it turns out, the Allies accomplished these objectives with Operation HUSKY. In July 1943, the Luftwaffe wrote off more aircraft in the Mediterranean than in any other theatre of war.
For Operation HUSKY, the Allied air forces secured air superiority against a resurgent Luftwaffe and an Italian Air Force defending its homeland. Allied bombers struck the Italian homeland relentlessly and with effect, destroying ports and marshalling yards. The Italian capitulation in North Africa, coupled with direct threats to the homeland by land, sea, and especially the air, convinced the Italian government that Fascism in Italy had run its course. As the Germans and their remaining Italian allies made a final stand in Sicily, the Allies brought tactical air power to bear. Air power could not stop the Axis evacuation, but it could help the Anglo-American armies make the enemy pay for every stand they made. The result was another bitter Axis defeat following on the heels of Stalingrad, Tunisia, and Kursk. That’s what the Allied air forces did in Sicily.
“[F]ighters were raising hell. On several occasions I would be safe in saying that every plane [B-17] was sending bullets at fighters – most vivid 4th of July I’ve ever seen, with tracers all over the sky, a formation of bombers, fighters darting in and out and black puffs all around. The fighters followed for 40 minutes, then it ended rather abruptly.”
The Luftwaffe inspector of fighters, General Adolf Galland, singled out American four-engine bombers for the defence of Sicily. These efforts were unsuccessful. Unlike the situation over the Reich in 1943, long-range fighter escorts were available to the Allies. P-38 Lightnings would fly with the bombers from bases in North Africa, while Spitfires based in Malta often escorted the bombers in the vicinity of Sicily.
The B-17 Flying Fortress was one of two heavy bombers serving with the Allied air forces during Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 (the other was the B-24 Liberator; the RAF had Halifaxes in theater, but they were used as transports). These aircraft focused their efforts on Axis aerodromes, lines of communication, and industry in Sicily, Sardinia, and mainland Italy. Nearly all B-17s in the Mediterranean were under the command of Major-General James H. Doolittle and the Northwest African Strategic Air Force.
The lone exceptions were the B-17s of the US 15th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron. These specialist crews were under the command of Colonel Elliott Roosevelt, one of the US president’s sons. As part of the Northwest African Photographic Reconnaissance Wing, these modified bombers (F-9s) had their bombarding equipment replaced by photographic equipment and flew with a reduced defensive armament. They flew crucial missions, gathering intelligence for future strikes, damage assessments, cartographers, and army and navy planners.
Type: 10-seat heavy bomber
Powerplant: four 895kW (1200hp) Wright R-1820-97 nine-cylinder single-row radial engines
Performance: maximum speed 523km/h (325mph); climb to 6095m (20,000ft) in 25 minutes 42 seconds; ceiling 11,430m (37,500ft); range 7113km (4420 miles)
Weights: empty 16,206kg (35,728lb); maximum take-off 32,659kg (72,000lb)
Wingspan: 31.63m (103ft 9in)
Length: 22.78m (74ft 9in)
Height: 5.85m (19ft 3in)
Armament: two 7.92mm (0.3in) trainable forward-firing machine guns in cheek positions, three 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable machine guns in dorsal positions, two 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable machine guns in the ventral position and one 12.7mm (0.5in) trainable lateral-firing machine gun in each of the two waist positions, plus an internal bomb load of 4761kg (10,496lb)
The following Northwest African Air Force units flew the Boeing B-17 during Operation Husky: